Kathmandu is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the largest Himalayan state in Asia. It is the largest metropolis in Nepal, with a population of 1.4 million in the city proper, and 5 million in its urban agglomeration across the Kathmandu Valley, which includes the towns of Lalitpur, Kirtipur, Madhyapur Thimi and Bhaktapur. Kathmandu is also the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, refer to Kathmandu in Nepal Mandala. Mahānagar means. The city is called “Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap” in a vow that Buddhist priests still recite to this day. During the latter part of the Malla era, Kathmandu Valley comprised four fortified cities Kantipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, and Kirtipur. These served as the capitals of the Malla confederation of Nepal. These states competed with each other in the arts, architecture, aesthetics, and trade, resulting in tremendous development.